What is Fusion Welding? Its types, Pros & Cons

Categories: Welding Technology

What is Fusion Welding? You can read and know the answer to the question in this article.

Welding has been practiced since 3000 B.C. During the Iron Age, Egypt developed its welding techniques. The Egyptians heated two pieces of metal and then connected them together by hammering. But Nikolay Benardos, a Russian, developed carbon arc welding in 1881.

What Is Fusion Welding And Types Of Fusion Welding
What Is Fusion Welding And Types Of Fusion Welding

Technology has advanced over the past few years, and welding techniques now use more simple procedures. There are currently more than 90 different kinds of welding. The nuclear, building, and transportation sectors continue these processes with more sophisticated analyses.


What is Fusion Welding?

Fusion arc welding is a word that is frequently used yet that few people are familiar with. What then is it? Fusion welding involves heating up two or more objects and joining them together. Depending on the type of job being done, filler materials may be used when doing fusion welding. When joining the pieces, welders do not use external pressure.

Non-fusion welding differs from fusion welding in several ways. Low heat levels are used for non-fusion welding. The base metal doesn’t melt at any process during this process. When doing non-fusion welding, welders do not employ filler materials. Soldering, pressure, and brazing welding are some of the best non-fusion welding examples.

What Is Welding?

It is important to define welding before understanding the definition of fusion welding. The building sector now relies heavily on welding. According to recent research by the American Welding Society, welding has an impact on 50% of the gross domestic product in the United States. A manufacturing process called welding includes utilizing heat to attach two or more similar or non-identical items together. Depending on the type of work, employing a filler may or may not be a part of the process.

Two methods of welding exist.

  • Fusion welding
  • Solid-state fusion welding

How Fusion Welding Works

The initial definition of fusion welding said that it involved joining heat to join two edges of either the same or different materials. The two portions that merge together when they cool are melted by the heat. If the space between the two pieces is significant, one may occasionally be able to employ filler material. Since the heating process creates a heat-affected zone 2 within the materials, the base material goes through many stages.

When the molten components of the base material and the molten filler are mixed, fusion welding occurs. It entails using heat to either produce an exterior junction at the weld point or melt the material in the joining zone. The FC-120 Gasless Flux Cored Wire Inverter Welding Machine is the greatest tool for carrying out various forms of fusion welding, according to numerous assessments.

Types of Fusion Welding

Understanding the many types of fusion welding is essential after discovering the term’s complete description. Based on the heat source, several fusion welding techniques are divided into groups. Here are a few of the common fusion welding styles:

ACR Welding

The most popular form of fusion welding is fusion arc welding. Using an electric process, arc welding involves joining two or more pieces. Using tools like the MIG-270TD MIG MAG IGBT Inverter Welding Machine, electric arcs can reach high temperatures of more than 6000 degrees Fahrenheit. Fusion arc welding excels at joining hard materials because of this characteristic. Arc welding can also be done underwater by welders.

The most typical kinds of arc welding consist of:

Shielded Metal Arc Welding: No matter the situation, shielded metal arc welding is utilized to join ferrous and non-ferrous materials.

Tungsten Inert Gas Welding: Non-consumable tungsten is used in tungsten inert gas welding to form the arc between the electrode and the base plate. An inert shielding gas is used by aluminum TIG welders to stop contamination and oxidation.

Metal Gas Arc Welding: Using MIG welders, an electric arc is created between the wire electrode and the material to perform metal gas arc welding. By using shielding gas, contamination is avoided.

Submerged Arc Welding: The technique that uses flux and a consumable electrode is called submerged arc welding. While it is molten, the flux conducts electricity and prevents sparks and spatters.

Plasma Arc Welding: An electric arc is created between the electrode and the nozzle during plasma arc welding. The argon gas present in the chamber is ionized by the electric arc.

Flux Cored Arc Welding: Shielded Metal Arc Welding can be substituted with flux-cored arc welding. For the thickest metals, flux core welders are used to feed consumable electrodes with flux during the entire process.

Gas Welding

Some might call it “oxy-fuel” or “oxyacetylene welding.” This process includes combining oxygen and acetylene gas with a blowpipe held in the hand to create a flare. It is a type of solvent-based fusion welding that joins surfaces by melting them with a flame. The main source of fuel for the flame is oxygen.

The underlying principle of this sort of welding is that fire needs oxygen to ignite. It may produce a flame that exceeds 4500 degrees Fahrenheit thanks to oxygen.

High-Energy Welding

High-energy welding is a kind of fusion welding that generates heat using light radiation. The materials are heated to a molten condition by welders blasting radiation onto their surface. Once they have cooled, the two parts will fit together.

There are two varieties of high-energy fusion welding:

Electron Beam Welding

High-velocity electrons are used in this high-energy welding to combine two different types of materials. The process happens at standard atmospheric pressure, and as the electrons reach the material, they heat it up. Most of the welts are deep and thin.

Welding Using a Laser

A laser beam is used as the main heat source in laser beam welding. When joining various metal and plastic pieces together, the laser beam is employed to maintain a highly focused energy source. It generates heat using light energy. With each explosion, the rig emits dissipated light that heats the surface.

Resistance Welding

One of the quickest fusion welding processes is resistance welding. It works best for usage in the automobile industry because of its quickness.

There are two varieties of resistance welding:

Resistance Welding for Seams

With this kind of resistance welding, alternating nuggets are used to form a persistent junction. As the process continues, moving disks take the role of conventional spot welding electrodes.

Spot Resistance Welding

This type of bonding generates heat between two electrodes and is reliant on the characteristics of the material and the thickness of the workpiece. Welders combine the many workpieces simultaneously while focusing the voltage in a specific area.

Friction Welding

Mechanical friction is used in friction welding to unite two distinct materials. Mechanical friction can be performed in a variety of ways on wood, aluminum, and steel. Despite the difficulty of the process, the heat generated is sufficient to soften and unite two separate components as they cool.

Friction welding is commonly used for the following purposes:

  • Welding via rotary friction
  • Spot friction welding
  • Welding using linear friction
  • Stir friction welding

There is no need for flux, filler, or shielding gas for friction welding. The process works best for joining lightweight, non-weldable materials like aluminum alloys.

Fusion Welding Applications

Fusion welding is used in a number of procedures. it is a technique used by structural engineers to construct big constructions like:

  • Airplanes
  • Bridges
  • Ships
  • pressure tanks
  • pipes welded
  • Protective explosives

Fusion metals can merge various materials, regardless of their thickness, because they generate significant heat levels. Among the most common uses are:

Metal Joining

Fusion welding involves joining intense heat to unite two or more individual pieces. Fusion welding, as opposed to soldering, melts the base metal and could need a filler material to create a junction. The metal component becomes molten when exposed to high heat. As it cools, these components come together to produce a weld bead. The end product is always more durable than the starting material.

It may be necessary to apply pressure while joining metals in order to create welds using a heat source. Shielding gas aids in preventing contamination or oxidation of the filler material or junction when joining two metals.

Plastics Joining

When joining polymers, fusion welding can be used. Instead of using heat, solvent welding employs adhesives. There are three states when fusion welding is used to join plastics:

  • washing and drying the surfaces to prepare them
  • putting pressure and heat on the molten component.
  • To solidify the link between the two polymers, cool the molten components. A cooling room can be needed for the process. This might not matter, though, given how quickly the process moves along.

Wood Materials Joining

The production of heat via mechanical friction is also necessary for welding wood components. The welders subject the materials to high pressure, which is followed by a linear friction action that generates heat to fuse the two wooden components together.

The process is simple and does not involve using nails or adhesive to connect the two separate pieces. Additionally, it preserves the original design and results in a stronger finished product.

Two Sides of Fusion Welding

Fusion welding has its fair share of benefits and drawbacks, just like any other process.


First off, using a filler is simple when there is a big space between the two pieces. Due to the lack of external pressure, fusion does not change the initial shape. Additionally, as it could affect heat penetration, one should not do edge preparation or design. Fusion also results in a solid joint between the parent materials. Since this process is quick, it can be used for most industrial procedures.


The binding of two dissimilar materials can be challenging, especially when they have different melting points. Due to the need for fusion and solidification, fusion experiences various levels of deterioration and produces leftover stress. Even more so, the parent material’s structure is changed throughout the heating process. Last but not least, the linked portion creates the heat-affected zone, which is generally regarded as the weakest point in the construction.

The table outlining the key benefits and drawbacks of fusion welding can be found below.


  • To unite two wide sections, a filler material might be used.
  • The initial shape is irrelevant because no pressure is needed.
  • Edge design and preparation are not required and could impact the heat penetration.
  • Welded joints are more durable.
  • It is suited for most industrial processes because it is a rapid and easy process.


  • A challenge to use when joining two materials with different melting points
  • There is some stress and damage on the welded component as a result of the need for fusion and solidification.
  • The process modifies the parent material’s original structure.
  • As the heat-affected zone and weakest spots in the entire structure, the linked parts


What is the short definition of fusion welding?

Heat is applied during the process of fusion welding to join two or more materials. Depending on the type of work, a filler material can be necessary. Other than resistance welding, it doesn’t require pressure.

What fundamental ideas underlie fusion arc welding?

In order to melt the joining parts, fusion arc welding requires a heat source that produces enough heat. The two most popular types of heat sources are gas and electricity.

How do fusion and non-fusion welding vary from one another?

While non-fusion welding uses lower heat intensities since it does not entail melting the parent material, it calls for high heat intensities that melt the parent material. it could also need fillers, but non-fusion welding doesn’t.


Fusion welding is a popular technique used in many industrial and construction processes. This process may call for filler material and uses heat to melt and connect various parent materials. As was already said, it forges a solid link between the parts being joined. The size, shape, and relative location of the molten pool, the contact pressure applied to the workpiece surface, and the cooling techniques used can all have an impact on the quality of the fused joint.

One advantage is that it can be performed inexpensively, making it a dependable choice for many sectors. it has drawbacks regarding metal weldability, weld quality, and weld appearance.

New Arrivals Multi-Process Welding Machines
New Arrivals Multi-Process Welding Machines